DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material of all living organisms. Your DNA stores the genetic information that your body needs to construct its cells and function.
Gene: A gene is a unit of heredity that is part of your DNA. Genes contain instructions for building new proteins in the body. Your genes also hold the information which passes along genetic traits from parent to child.
Genotype: Your genetic make-up, an individual’s genotype is also referred to when specifying particular genes of interest, such as genes that affect weight management.
Macronutrient: Building block that provide the energy for your body-carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Nutrigenetics: As part of Nutrigenomics, Nutrigenetics addresses how an individual’s make-up predisposes them to conditions which are affected by their nutrition, such as weight management.
Nutrigenomics: The science of how nutrition influences the expression of genes.
SNP: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (Pronounced “snip”) is a genetic variation in our DNA that is largely responsible for why humans differ from one another.
Sample Gene descriptions
FABP2 Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2, is a protein found in the small intestine where its key function is the absorption and intracellular transport of dietary long chain fatty acids (FA).
PPARG Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily found predominantly in adipose tissue.
ADRB2 Beta-2-adrenergic receptor, is a protein found in adipocytes or fat cells, which is involved in regulating energy expenditure by stimulating lipid metabolism in response to hormones called catecholines.
ADRB3 Beta-3-adrenergic receptor, is predominantly expressed in visceral adipose tissue18 where its major function is in thermogenesis and lipolysis of both brown and white adipose tissues.
FTO Fat mass and obesity associated gene, is widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, with the highest levels found in the brain and pancreatic islets.
(IL-6) Is a cytokine induced by stress and serves as a pro-inflammatory mediator; however, IL6 also plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism.
TNFa Has a primary role in regulation of immune cells. TNFa has been found commonly to be elevated in obese individuals and might serve as a biomarker for prognosis of obesity and other related metabolic disturbances.
ACE Angiotensin I-converting enzyme, plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte balance.
LIPC Human hepatic lipase gene is involved in lipoprotein metabolism and it was shown to respond in a dose modulated based on gender and the type of fat intake.
APOA2 Apolipoprotein A-II gene promoter has been demonstrated in functional studies to have a 30% decrease in transcription and lower plasma levels of apoA-II, the second most abundant protein in HDL.
IRS1 Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene, a major mediator between the insulin receptor and phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the insulin signaling pathway.
TCF7L2 Transcription factor 7-like 2, is the strongest genetic determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and insulin-related phenotypes to date.
GIPR Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor, widely expressed in the body. GIPR-mediated signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and obesity linked by over nutrition.
ACTN3 Influences muscle function and performance. This protein is expressed exclusively in the fast glycolytic fibers of human skeletal muscles, which are responsible in generating explosive, powerful contractions.
eNOS Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene produces an important signaling molecule in response to physical activity induced shear stress (exercise training), it results in expansion of the blood vessels to enhance blood flow, oxygen transport, and nutrient delivery to skeletal muscles.